BRAVE ECO – Benchmark for Reduction of Anchoring Vessels’ Emissions – Enabling Change of Operation

This feasibility study aims to evaluate the possibilities to reduce air emissions from ships anchored in port areas and, then especially the Port of Gothenburg. For this purpose, the study uses two main approaches. Firstly, it analyses the reasons and legal/business aspects for anchoring. Secondly, this study develops a reproducible calculation model for anchored vessels’ CO2 emissions.
The inputs from the workshops, the interviews conducted with stakeholders and the international
literature are “rather” consistent: combining just in time arrival with slow steaming has a great potential for making a business case and to reduce fuel consumption and thereby emissions. However, there are many barriers which needs to be addressed, such as: lack of trust, improving information sharing (actors now communicate via phone or email), loss of income (due to demurrage), attitudes in the industry, the “first come, first serve” concept, risk of missing estimated time of arrival and port infrastructure. Even if there are many barriers, several actors in the port already have experience of combining just in time arrival and slow steaming.

The effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the Swedish shipping industry and its resilience capabilities

The coronavirus pandemic has emphasized the importance of maritime transportation as
an essential element to economic development and social welfare. Authorities have
implemented policies and restrictions to safeguard public health and worked together with
private firms to secure the supply chains and transport conditions.
This prestudy aims to investigate how the Swedish shipping industry has been affected by
the coronavirus pandemic and how it is likely to affect shipping in the mid-term and longterm future. This report covers the effects and actions taken during the acute phase from
March 2020 to May 2021 with a certain focus on the Swedish shipping companies’
resilience capabilities. In order to evaluate the role of the Swedish shipping industry in
promoting strategies to mitigate coronavirus effects, the study carried out a review of
Swedish newspaper articles and briefly reviewed publications in international scientific
outlets. The rendering is structured along a framework of resilience capabilities.

Lätta elfartyg – Electric Light

The objective of this project was to establish an innovative ship concept for a fully electric
Ro-Pax ship, which makes use of new technology, especially in the area of electrical
propulsion and energy storage. The project also included a risk assessment of the concept
and identification of possible follow-up studies of critical design items.
There is a growing demand for all types of shipping to reduce their emissions of
greenhouse gases and particles, and also NOx and SOx. Meeting IMO’s emissions
objective by 2050 will require large efforts both for energy efficiency measures on existing
ships and for new concepts for fossil-free ships. Electrical propulsion for small ships has
been discussed for long and many installations are today operational.
This project is an innovation project with participation from industrial partners
contributing to the overall goal of sustainable shipping by proposing a ship concept for an
electrically powered large Ro-Pax ship for shorter international voyage.

Reducing undeclared and misdeclared dangerous goods to improve maritime transport safety

Transport of dangerous goods creates substantial utility to society, but carries a risk to the
environment, health and safety. Some of the accidents and incidents occurring during dangerous
goods transport can be attributed to poor practices, such as misdeclaration or failure to declare the
goods. This pre-study aims to investigate the problem of undeclared and misdeclared dangerous
goods transport on container, RoRo and RoPax vessels and to investigate the circumstances and
causes that lead to incorrect declaration.
For this purpose, this research carried out a literature review and conducted several interviews with
main stakeholders in Sweden such as port authorities, port terminals, shipping companies,
insurance companies and public institutions. Main results suggest that the existence of different
regulations (land transport and sea transport for dangerous goods), can be a risk for managing these
goods. Furthermore, it is important to enhance coordination between different actors and increase
digitalization to control information flows.
This pre-study is coordinated with the longer and larger project Transparent information management
and collaboration for improved reliability during transportation of dangerous goods funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB).

Aftertreatment of methane slip from marine gas engines

A side effect from the combustion in the low-pressure engines is a slip of unburnt
methane through the combustion process. For some engines using LNG as main
fuel, the methane slip causes total emissions of CO2-equivalents to be higher than
from comparable engines using only marine gasoil. The issue of methane slip is
addressed by engine manufacturers aiming for improved designs and combustion
technology.
Another way to approach the matter is to treat the exhaust gases. In this study we
have analysed different ways to oxidise methane in the exhaust pipe of marine
engines. Methane engines used on land are often equipped with oxidation catalysts.
There are however still no systems commercially available for marine applications.
Factors that present a challenge to the use of catalysts on ships include a high sulphur
content of the pilot fuel, low temperatures of the exhausts, and high contents of
water vapor. Our analyses also include studies of a more innovative solution for
methane oxidation based on a non-thermal plasma technology. Laboratory tests are
positive and indicate a good potential, although tests at a larger scale are needed
before installation on a ship is possible.

Consequences of speed reductions for ships

Mandatory speed reductions have been proposed by different parties within
the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a short time measure to
reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from shipping. This study assesses
what consequences it can have for Swedish shipowners and the Swedish
business society that relies on maritime transportation in their supply chains.
The most relevant IMO proposals for mandatory speed reductions are
described in the study and from these a selected number of speed reduction
proposals are analysed further.

Size, specialization and flexibility – the role of ports in a sustainable transport system

In moving towards a sustainable transport system, the Swedish government has
stated that policy actions related to electrification and increasing the share of
renewable fuels must be complemented with a modal shift of freight transport
from road to rail and sea. The question addressed in this report is whether policies
aimed specifically at improving the attractiveness of small ports in Sweden can
contribute to an increased use of maritime transport by enabling more competitive
services. Small ports are typically considered to be at a disadvantage due to not
being able to achieve economies of scale and their lack of connectivity to large
trade routes. There are significant economies of scale in port operations but
increasing the competitiveness of small and peripheral ports may be key to
achieving a modal shift. This study sets out to investigate broadly what would be
required for maritime transport services utilizing small ports to be competitive visà-vis competing land-based services.

Use of port State control inspection data from the Paris MoU to assess pressure from shipping on the marine environment

In this report we analyse the current official control system of ships as a measure to
prevent negative effects on the marine environment. We explore the relation between the
Port State Control system as implemented by Paris Memorandum of Understanding, and
the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which obligates EU member States to achieve
a Good Environmental Status (GES) of their marine waters. In that sense, the report
presents a new perspective on the Port State Control statistics that Paris MOU already
publish.
This report also aims to serve as a motivator for further analyses and actions to reduce
negative impact from shipping on the marine ecosystems, and to coordinate the official
measures used by different marine and maritime agencies. Special attention is paid to the
Baltic Sea, which like all EU marine waters is embraced by the Marine Strategy
Framework Directive. A set of suggestions for further analyses is included in the report
conclusions.

Digitalisation and automation in small and medium sized Swedish ports (SMPs)

Large pressure is now put upon Swedish small and medium sized ports (SMPs)
due to an increased demand of goods expected to be transported, a strong desire
to make a modal shift from road to sea, and also the introduction of new
regulations on reporting formalities. This also means that the same requirements
on supply visibility are now put upon each means of transport from the transport
buyers’ point of view.
In the transport chain, ports provide the important link between land-based and
sea-based transports. This also concerns small and medium sized ports (SMPs),
being an important part of the infrastructure catering for the distribution of
people and goods within national and international transportation processes. Most
often SMPs have a role in feeding goods to larger transportation hubs, and they
offer a gateway towards sustainable transport modes.
The ongoing process of digitalisation and automation is something that SMPs
cannot ignore. As SMPs often rely on scarce personnel resources, there is a need
to seek opportunities, why it is of great importance to find ways to share
knowledge and possibly co-utilize diverse solutions.

Including maritime transport in the EU Emission Trading System – addressing design and impacts

This report summarizes the findings of the project “Including maritime transport in the
EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS)”. The aim of the project is to assess the overall
design and consequences of including maritime transports in the EU ETS.
In the literature, there are several design proposals both on global and regional cap-andtrade systems to address the greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by maritime transports, a
few specifically addressing the EU ETS. To our knowledge no published literature on
this topic, including the design and the consequences thereof, has based their
assessments on the implemented monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV)
regulation and the collected data for ships calling a port within the European Economic
Area (EEA). At the time of writing of this report, there are no official proposals from
the European Commission on the details of a system where shipping is included in the
EU ETS. Hence, in this report we discuss and assess a variety of possible designs.

VR at sea (sv)

VR at sea, will describe and investigate the possibilities of using VR / AR technology in the training of risky moments in the maritime domain in order to enhance seafarers’ safety in advanced maritime operations and rescue operations.

Initiating parties: RISE, Sjöfartshögskolan, Chalmers
Prioritised areas: Advanced maritime operations, Maritime safety and Sustainable working conditions within the shipping industry

Read the study (Swedish).

Competence provision in the maritime industry (sv)

In the preliminary study, Competence provision in Maritime Industry, the skills needs for shipping and marine engineering will be mapped. The level of competence may exist at different levels of education. In Norway, such work has already been done, and the preliminary study should look at how the Norwegian model can be transferred to the Swedish maritime industry.

Executors:
Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, RISE

Participants:
SMTF,VGR, Svensk Sjöfart, Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus

Green sea transport – prerequisites for the concept of ”green shipping” services at sea

In several sectors, climate-neutral transports have been developed and marketed by introducing a different systems approach. The overall objective of the study is to initiate a market-driven introduction of climate-neutral fuels in shipping. The feasibility study will clarify the technical, practical, economical and market aspects that are relevant to the maritime sector and its customers and provide knowledge on how to introduce drop-in shares of climate-neutral fuels in existing tonnage.

Initiating parties: IVL, School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg
Prioritised areas: Integrated transport systems and business models • Evaluation and reduction of any negative effects shipping has on the climate, environment and public health • Alternative energy for ship propulsion and energy supply.

Read the study

Related content: 
Low carbon marine freight the possibility to introduce biobased fuels as marine fuels

Calculation of transport work and emissions in MRV

EU system, Monitoring, Reporting, verifying (MRV), means that ships moving in the waters around EU should report their CO2 emissions and transport work. The feasibility study will answer how MRV data can be used by the maritime sector for the calculations of the environmental performance of shipping. The feasibility study’s overall objective is to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and provide a better understanding of industry challenges around MRV.

Initiating parties: IVL, Chalmers
Prioritised areas: Evaluation and reduction of any negative effects shipping has on the climate, environment and public health • Financial incentives to support transition to sustainability within the maritime industry

Read the study

The Waterway – part 2 (sv)

The study is a continuation of a pre study from 2016 and reviews a series of government reports that deal with the role of shipping as part of the infrastructure. The purpose of the preliminary study is to easily describe various factors that influence how government investments are assessed, to identify differences between different modes of transport, as well as to account for some of the limitations in the assessment basis. Finally, examples are given, where shipping efforts are assessed as socio-economically profitable or potentially profitable.

In-door positioning of RoRo-vessels

To load a RoRo vessel is a complex task and the industry has called for a system that can automate the collection of vehicle position data and register the vehicles on-board ships. Such a system would provide a faster workflow and increase safety by knowing, for example, where gas-powered or battery-powered vehicles are placed and this could also possibly improve firefighting on-board a ship. By knowing the position and vehicle data, stability of the vessel can also be optimized during loading. The goal of the study is to identify a possible concept to enable in-door positioning of vehicles and other cargo on-board RoRo-vessels.

Initiating parties: Viktoria Swedish ICT, Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, Stena
Prioritised area: Maritime informatics • Maritime safety

Read the study

Sustainability classification for vessels

To get a complete picture of a vessel or a shipping company’s role in sustainable development, there is currently no comprehensive tool, but many initiatives. A major challenge is to renew the use of sustainability indices for individual vessels, based on the evaluation of shipping in a larger perspective. To evaluate and find indicators of social aspects, particularly the working environment and working conditions in shipping is a less developed part of the sustainability issues. A good working environment, both from the individual’s health perspective as well as a system perspective where it is vital that it is ‘easy to do right’, are crucial in the efforts to reduce the environmental impact of vessels.

Participants: Chalmers, IVL – Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Read the study

Want to know more?

Karin Andersson

Professor
Phone +46 31 772 21 52
Mobile +46 706 28 21 52
karin.andersson@chalmers.se

Improved performance forecasting and optimisation of ship operation (sv)

When a new vessel is to be built, there is a need to evaluate the design and compare different concepts. But current methods to predict the vessel’s performance needs to be improved to meet the new requirements. For example, today vessels are designed to be energy efficient in waves and in various loading conditions. The solution is the development of hybrid methods where experiments and computer simulations are combined to ensure reliable forecasts. The feasibility study will formulate a research proposal that will eventually lead to improved testing methods to predict vessel performance.

Pre-study finished: August 2017
Initiating parties: SSPA, Chalmers, KTH, Stena
Prioritised area: Innovative shipping concepts and naval architecture

Read the study (Swedish)

Dynamic design of ships

In the trend towards more efficient transportation, energy efficient operation and reduced environmental impact, ship hulls tend to become larger than before, while there is a desire to optimise the design towards lighter, more fuel-efficient ships. As a consequence, there is a growing need for increased understanding of how the different requirements and solutions affect the entire shipbuilding process. How will the future hull structures meet the requirements of strength, seaworthiness, environmental requirements and safety?

Finished: December 2016

Actors: SSPA, Chalmers, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stena

Read the study

Related content: 
New methods shall provide lighter and more energy efficient hulls

Want to know more?

Jonny Nisbet
jonny.nisbet@sspa.se

The waterway – the intermodal piece to resource efficient regional and urban transport (sv)

Is it possible to get higher capacity and an energy-efficient transport system by using an intermodal perspective and with the sea as a component? This pre-study will identify methods and models that show how shipping affects the transport system and in what way, and to what extent, the waterway can be used for energy efficient and resource efficient regional and urban transport systems and thus contribute to transport policy objectives. 

Finished: October 2016

Actors: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, University of Gothenburg, Transport Analysis (a Swedish Government Agency), Swedish Transport Administration, Vattenbussen, Avatar

Read the study (Swedish)

Related content: 
Almedalen video – Sjöfarten, en del av samhällets hållbara tillväxt?

Contact:

Karl Garme
garme@kth.se

Autonomous safety on vessels

The trend is clear, higher level of automation is entering all sectors of transportation and it stretches from searching for natural resources and all the way in to our homes. Shipping vessels and the shipping industry is changing rapidly. The world’s first smart ship with shore-based monitoring and controlling “I-Dolphin” will be keel laid September 2016 built in China1 and delivered 2017. US DARPA2 is about to launch a 130-foot long remote controlled surface vessel with high level autonomous features and Boeing3 a 51-foot unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV); both are designed for months of service in combination of remote controlled and autonomous modes. This report is an overview of trends in the shipping industry and other transport/logistic domains that might be worth a closer scrutiny and reflection for inspiration and further development. 

Pre study finished: July 2016
Partners: Victoria Swedish ICT, Chalmers, Stena, Wallenius, Swedish Maritime Administration

The full feasibility study on Autonomous Safety on Vessels (PDF)

Related content: 

Want to know more?

Robert Rylander
robert.rylander@ri.se

Yemao Man
yemao.man@chalmers.se

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